Coronary artery fistulae (CAF) are classified as abnormalities of a chamber of the heart (coronary-cameral fistula) or any segment of the. Coronary-cameral fistulas are rare congenital malformations, often incidentally found during cardiac catheterizations. The majority of these. Coronary artery fistulas: clinical and therapeutic considerations. Coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistulae with multiple aneurysms: radiological features on dual-source slice . MDCT in the Evaluation of Coronary Cameral Fistula.

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Coronary–cameral fistula

The congenital entity can be distinguished into coronary artery-ventricular multiple micro-fistulas[ 26 – 9 ] or small or large solitary macro fistulas[ 1 ], the latter making up the vast majority[ 10 ]. His exercise treadmill test was positive for ischemic changes with accompanying chest pain.

Congenital or acquired CCFs in adults are infrequent anomalies having a wide spectrum of clinical presentation may varies from asymptomatic to severely devastating states requiring different treatment modalities. The congenital subgroup will be presented here first part. Significant coronary artery disease was found in 3 subjects, of whom 2 had one vessel disease VD and 1 cameeal 3-VD, while 8 were free of atherosclerotic lesions.

Various percutaneous catheter techniques have been employed, including Gianturco coils, interlocking detachable coils, detachable balloons, polyvinyl alcohol foam, double umbrellas, coronray Amplatzer duct occluder, and the Amplatzer vascular plug. Case Reports in Cardiology. Small fistulas are usually silent and are discovered incidentally on angiography [ 2 ], while large fistulas are diagnosed secondary to the complications.

Statistical analysis Continuous variables are expressed as means and ranges and categorical variables were presented as percentages.

The patient was commenced on oral coronaty and reported an improvement in symptoms 2 months later in the outpatient clinic.


Coronary–cameral fistula

Specifically, the apex beat was non-displaced and the heart sounds were normal with no added sounds or murmurs. In view of the stable angina, absence of heart murmur, and no objective evidence of coronary artery steal, the patient was managed conservatively. Conservative medical management; COPD: Coronary arteries were angiographically normal. Larger fistulas can cause coronary artery steal resulting in ischemia of segment of myocardium perfused by coronary artery distal to fistula.

Despite the good results with surgery, closure during cardiac catheterization has become the method of choice [ 10 ].

Support Center Support Center. However, smaller fistulas tend to get large with the age and it is recommended to perform elective closure early in the patient who have symptoms or if they are asymptomatic but have continuous murmur or systolic murmur with an early diastolic component.

Clinical presentation depends upon the hemodynamic significance of the anomaly. Generalized coronary arterio-systemic left ventricular fistula.

Coronary cameral fistulas CCFs are rare and are characterized by abnormal communication between coronary artery CA and cardiac chamber that usually results from aberrancy of normal embryological development.

In addition, there were few reports on the implantation of an ICD in patients with extensive congenital MMFs in association with syncope. Shunt characteristics The magnitude of the shunt of MMFs may be considerable.

Three-dimensional volume rendered VR images accurately depicts the relationship of the enlarged right CA to the aorta, right-sided chambers, and the CAs. Open in a separate window. Incidence, angiographic characteristics, natural history. Coronary artery-left ventricular fistulae associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Case Reports in Cardiology

A case of congenital bilateral coronary-to-right ventricle fistula coexisting with variant angina. Congenital coronary cameral fistulas vary widely in their clinical presentation. His exercise treadmill test was positive for ischemic changes and ECG-gated contrast enhanced CT was done for further evaluation. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Left bundle branch block; LV: Right coronary artery fistula to the coronary sinus and right atrium associated with giant right coronary enlargement detected by transthoracic echocardiography.


Moreover, the clinical diagnosis of congenital MMFs can be difficult because as laboratory tests and ECG manifestations are non-specific and the imaging modalities may sometimes be non-interpretable.

These fistulas are rare clinical entities that either usually result from congenital abnormalities or are acquired from trauma or invasive cardiac procedures. Citing articles via Web of Science Said SA, van der Werf T.

Symptomatic Coronary Cameral Fistula

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; PCI: COMMENTS Congenital coronary cameral fistulas encompass a group of solitary macro small or large or multiple micro coronary cameral communications that are increasingly recognized due to sophistication and wide spread application of non-invasive and invasive angiographic imaging modalities[ 103036 ]. Significant coronary artery disease was present in only 2 patients.

Panel B Right anterior oblique view of the left coronary artery demonstrating direct communication of the first diagonal with the left ventricular cavity. Current own series There were 11 patients with congenital MMFs mean age of Heper G, Kose S. Within the entity of CCFs, each subtype has its own coronzry characteristics such as origin, termination of fistulas and treatment options.