This manual is part of the FM series, which describes a contemporary. Opposing Force (OPFOR) that exists for the purpose of training U.S. forces. publications in the former Field Manual [FM] series will be TCs outline an OPFOR than can cover the entire spectrum of military and. First, the armor- and mechanized-based and infantry-based OPFOR modules . Likewise, some types of OPFOR described in FM can.

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Cases may exist in which constraints on the use of classified information opfot the use of actual threat data. The name of that country would also be the State.

File:FM – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December ).pdf – Wikimedia Commons

As such, it could include armor- and mechanized-based or infantry-based forces of the types found in FMs andrespectively. As seen in Figurea division on two routes is about km deep exclusive of march security elements. This dispersion reduces vulnerability to enemy attack and also increases the area covered by responsive fire support.

Fn OPFOR describes initial movement as routine internal redeployment or exercise activity, supported by public pronouncements and diplomatic communications. These Ground Forces comprise several standing divisions and separate brigades, most of which are subordinate to standing armies or corps.

During extended halts, the OPFOR lays landline, and uses existing telephone networks and cellular systems whenever possible. It may form forward detachments in readiness to conduct deep battle. Protection and security measures are critical during the march.

OPFOR standards do not require traffic control posts if the march route is less than km long. FM is a training tool that trainers and OPFOR organizations must use with flexibility to meet their training requirements. However, they are normally capable of projecting military power only within their region. However, sufficient time may allow the OPFOR to analyze enemy activities to determine whether or not the deception efforts have succeeded.


The enemy may detect movement in the operational and strategic depth of the OPFOR, given the quality and variety of sensors available to him.

When conflict is imminent, or when U. The armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR can conduct a strategic operation involving the combined forces in a theater. Once the operation has begun, even second-echelon and reserve forces generally remain on the move, rather than occupying prepared assembly areas.

The operational art describes how army groups, armies, and corps conduct operations. If only five routes are available, the depth of the army may extend from to km. Thus, the total length of an army’s columns marching in seven routes may be about km.

Also, HETs need bridges with a load capacity of 80 to metric tons to cross rivers. It can be any specific foreign nation or organization with intentions and military capabilities that suggest it could become an adversary or challenge the national security interests of the United States or its allies.

File:FM 7-100.1 – OPFOR, Opposing Force Operations (December 2004).pdf

None of these forces is capable of meeting the most advanced armies on an even footing in conventional battle. Like the lower end of the infantry-based OPFOR, these forces are likely to attempt to deal with a larger, more technologically advanced army through terrorism or insurgency. It organizes traffic control along march routes, in assembly areas, in troop disposition and combat areas, and at chokepoints. The plan stresses opfod, overlapping opfot redundant coverage.

Physical destruction missions targeting command and control and reconnaissance assets are critical to ensuring the enemy does not disrupt or delay movement. If the OPFOR anticipates a meeting engagement battlean attack against an ill-prepared or overextended enemy, or a pursuit, the first echelon is normally tank-heavy at both tactical and operational levels, and forward detachments can probe ahead.

When the army moves into that rest area, the forward CP moves on to the next one; this move may be wholly or in part by helicopter. However, the preferred method is for the first-echelon force to enter into combat directly from the march, without occupying a assembly area. Thus, the differences between the infantry-based and armor- and mechanized-based OPFOR modules are largely scenario-dependent.


FM Armor- And Mechanized-Based Opposing Force Operational Art – Inroduction

Enemy analysts look for such “norms”, and are more easily deceived by a false pattern that meets those expectations. Long road marches impose considerable wear and tear on tracked and heavy equipment.

Once a decision is made, rapid mobilization and movement pofor units assumes primary importance. The other disadvantage of rail movement is that it is very vulnerable to air or precision weapon interdiction. Rather, ffm provide the building blocks from which users kpfor derive an infinite number of potential orders of battle, depending on their training requirements.

In the case of intervention by an external power or coalition, this strategy aims to undermine the enemy’s will to continue the conflict without the necessity of defeating his main forces on the battlefield. As the Army moves into the twenty-first century, it is no longer possible to identify one or two nations or forces as the potential adversaries against which it needs to train on a regular basis.

The least preferred option is to have an army forward CP move at the head of the first echelon throughout, with the main CP moving in the second echelon, a day’s march behind. Sign In Sign Out. To use FMtrainers must first develop a scenario.

However, such a force is exceedingly expensive to equip, train, and maintain. The opor lengths and intervals depicted in Figures and are examples for “typical” situations.